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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2016| January-April  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 25, 2016

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Correlation of salivary levels of interleukin-6 and albumin with oral squamous cell carcinoma
Mallikarjuna Rao, Amitha Ramesh, Swathi Adapa, Biju Thomas, Jayarama Shetty
January-April 2016, 3(1):11-14
Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive epithelial malignancy and is the most common neoplasm arising in the upper aerodigestive tract. Earlier studies have shown that salivary levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) when compared to healthy individuals. They were considered as useful biomarkers for early OSCC development. Albumin levels in the saliva were shown to be elevated in medically compromised patients with poor general condition and performance status. Aim: The purpose of this preliminary research is to investigate the role of IL-6 and albumin levels in the saliva as a marker for the early diagnosis and progression of OSCC. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to May 2015. Sixty individuals were included and two groups (with 30 individuals each) were formed – Group 1: Healthy individuals and Group 2: Patients with OSCC. IL-6 and albumin levels in the saliva were measured using commercially available kits and were compared between the two groups using Mann–Whitney U test. P value of less than 0.05 was regarded to be statistically significant. Results: Mean value of IL-6 in Group 1 (healthy) was 15.06 [standard deviation (SD) is 4.42] and in Group 2 (OSCC) was 192.15 (SD is 82.76). On comparing the two mean values, it was seen that there was a significant rise in the salivary IL-6 levels in the OSCC group when compared to the healthy group. The mean value of albumin in Group 1 (healthy) was 0.28 (SD is 0.19) and in Group 2 (OSCC) was 0.82 (SD is 0.41). On comparing the two mean values, it was seen that there was a significant rise in the salivary levels of albumin in OSCC patients when compared to the healthy group. Conclusion: This study shows that IL-6 and albumin levels in the saliva can be used as useful biomarkers for OSCC.
  3 2,634 369
Study of dyslipidemia and antioxidant status in chronic kidney disease patients at a hospital in South East Asia
Kamal Kachhawa, Meena Varma, Poonam Kachhawa, Divya Agrawal, MKS Shaikh, Sanjay Kumar
January-April 2016, 3(1):28-30
Introduction: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia is a most common problem in developed and developing society. Abnormal increase level of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and LDL caused cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dyslipidemia is a known marker for CVD in the common population. Significant abnormal total cholesterol, LDL, TG, VLDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are present in CKD patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, we tried to find out the levels of lipid profile and antioxidant levels in CKD patients and its correlation with CVD. This study included 159 human subjects of age group between 40 and 65 years, out of which 78 patients were CKD and rest 81 patients are matched healthy subjects (control group). Results and Discussion: Our study showed a significant increase in Blood Pressure compared to control subjects. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, VLDL, TG, and LDL) was found significantly deranged (P < 0.001) and there was a decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol compared to control subjects. Conclusion: Enzyme level (superoxide dismutase) was significantly decreased, and malondialdehyde level was significantly increased compared to control subjects which show the effect of dyslipidemia and oxidative stress associated with the chronic kidney disorder.
  3 2,836 275
Behavior of health workers toward the implementation of clinical guidelines
Samal Janmejaya
January-April 2016, 3(1):6-10
Background: The maternal health situation in the country always presents challenges before the overall health system in India. Implementation of clinical guidelines can bring uniformity and standards of treatment protocol, leading to better maternal health outcome. Objectives: To understand the attitude, behavior, and challenges faced by health workers with regard to the implementation of clinical guidelines and protocols in the domain of maternal health. Setting and Design: Different cadres of health care providers working at the district and block levels were selected conveniently with the permission of the State health administration. In addition, nursing and medical academicians were also included in the study. Materials and Methods: A pilot qualitative study in two districts of Assam was carried out. Different cadres of health workers such as Medical Officers (MO), Rural Health Practitioners (RHP), and Nurses working at the district and block levels were interviewed in-depth with the help of a semistructured interview schedule, which lasted for 26 days during May-July 2014. Results: The study elicited several pertinent issues related to the implementation of clinical guidelines, which include the introduction of clinical guidelines as a part of academic training, awareness about clinical guidelines, the commonest conditions for which clinical guidelines are used, challenges faced in accessing and implementing guidelines, and specific areas where clinical guidelines should be developed. Poor penetration of clinical guideline implementation was observed in the domain of maternal health care in the study area. Conclusion: Given the situation of maternal morbidity and mortality, the implementation of clinical guidelines appears rational.
  2 2,464 257
Improving the outcome of severe acute malnutrition by community-based management
Zubaida Ladan Farouk, Garba Dayyabu Gwarzo, Aisha Zango, Halima Abdu
January-April 2016, 3(1):20-23
Background: Undernutrition is the leading underlying cause of death among under-five children in Nigeria. The few functioning inpatient health facilities are unable to carry the heavy prevalence burden. The community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) targets children aged 6–59 months with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), providing maximum access, coverage, and appropriate clinical and nutritional care before life-threatening complications set in. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of the outpatient therapeutic program (OTP) component of CMAM using the SPHERE indicators,a rural Nigerian community. Settings and Design: Jigawa state is located in the Sahel region of Northwestern Nigeria. It is a prospective cross-sectional study. Statistics: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.5 statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used. Materials and Methods: Prospective data were collected from 16 United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)-assisted CMAM OTP sites in three local governments areas between its inceptions in July 2010 and end in August 2011 in a rural Nigerian state. The estimated number of children with SAM in communities and the actual number of children with SAM enrolled into the CMAM program was used to calculate the point treatment coverage in the CMAM program was used to calculate the point treatment coverage. Results: were represented in tables and graphs. Analyzed data were compared with the minimum SPHERE indicators as cutoff points for outcome performance. Result: A total of 24,419 children were admitted to the program accounting for 12% of the SAM target population with 12,073 children seen in in the three LGA that are assisted by UNICEF. Of 7,742 (64%) children who exited the program, 58% were cured and 40% defaulted, and all these children fell below the accepted minimum SPHERE standards. Death occurred in 2% and none were discharged non-recovered. Only 27% of the government-owned health facilities in these the selected local government areas were utilized to provide CMAM services. Conclusion: The performance of the CMAM program in Nigeria is 58% cure rate, 40% defaulter rate and 2% death rate standards. Large number of children with SAM were cured and prevented from dying.
  2 3,136 426
Aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis, Urtica diocia, and soybean exert different effects on adenosine deaminase activity in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues
Zahide Esra Durak, Hikmet Can Cubukcu, Suleyman Buber, Hilmi Kocaoglu, Ilker Durak
January-April 2016, 3(1):24-27
Objective: This study aimed to investigate effects of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis, Urtica diocia, and soybean on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues since it is key enzyme participating in DNA turn-over. Materials and Methods: In method, cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues removed by surgical operations were studied. In the samples, ADA activities were measured with and without plant extract incubated for 1 h. Results: As a result, it has been observed that rosemary extract inhibits ADA enzyme in cancerous (P = 0.031) and noncancerous gastric tissues (P = 0.048), but not in colon tissues, and Urtica extract inhibits the enzyme only in the cancerous gastric tissue (P = 0.039). On contrast, soybean extract activates ADA enzyme in colon tissues significantly (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Inhibition of ADA enzyme might play a part in the proposed anti-cancer properties of rosemary and U. diocia. However, the finding of ADA activation in colon tissues by soybean extract is a new one which needs further verification.
  2 2,343 230
Investigation of random event generator changes in Agnistoma Somayaga rituals: An exploratory study
Divya Bangalore Raghavendra Prasad, Nagendra R Hongasandra, Amritanshu Ram
January-April 2016, 3(1):15-19
Background: The use of Soma has proved to be medically beneficial in the field of Ayurveda. The Soma ritual has been proved to cleanse environmental pollution. It links the consciousness and the processes of creation. It's ceremonies with specific herbal mixtures act medicinally on the body and psychoactively on the mind, directly affecting the ontological status of a person. Performing a Somayaga benefits in balancing the seasons and in the occurrence of timely rainfall. Aims and Objective: To explore and evaluate the possible influences of Agnistoma Somayaga on the random event generator (REG) and to quantify the changes occurring due to the synchronous directed attention evoked from the performance of Agnistoma Somayaga. Materials and Methods: The field REG data was collected for 6 days of the Agnistoma Somayaga in Panauti, Nepal using Psyleron field REG. The recording of random data was continuous from the start to the end of each day's performance of the yaga. Results: Significant anomalous deviations were observed in REG on several occasions on all days. Particularly significant changes with P > 0.05 occurred during Yagnasankalpa, Prayaneshti, Prathama Pravargya, Vedic chanting, Gharmodvaasanam, Subramanya, Soma aahuti, and Somarasa taken by the priest, high fire in Mahavedi during Pratah Savanam, Madhayana Savanam, and Tritiya Savanam, and in Avabhrita Snana. REG trend in Madhyana Savanam (P = 0.06), Soma Pressing (P = 0.05) and High fire of Mahavedi(P = 0.09). Conclusion: Spiritual rituals and Vedic yagas affect and influence the way of people's life, which spreads harmony and peace. This study suggests that Agnistoma Somayaga has the capacity to influence the REG.
  - 3,958 236
Role of coconut oil and soda bicarbonate in gastric lavage in the management of celphos poisoning
Konsam Jina Devi, Kasomhung Soreingam, Vipin Kumar Singh
January-April 2016, 3(1):31-34
Context: Celphos poisoning is one of the most common and lethal poison with no antidote available till now. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of new treatment regimen and interventions to reduce the mortality from celphos poisoning. Settings and Design: A profile of 30 patients with alleged intake of celphos tablets who got admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) was studied. Materials and Methods: In all the 30 patients with alleged celphos poisoning, extensive gastric lavage was done with a mixture of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate solution. Strict monitoring, both invasive and noninvasive was done and symptomatic/supportive treatment was carried out on a patient-to-patient basis. Statistical Analysis: At the end of the study, all the data were compiled systematically and statistical analysis was carried out using the nonparametric tests and value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Majority of the patients were young with a mean age of 20.14 ± 3.62 years and had good educational level. Most of the patients presented clinically with cardiovascular signs and symptoms (60%), followed by respiratory distress (13.33%) and little higher incidence of multiorgan symptomatology (16.67%). The mean stay of the patients in ICU was 5.62 ± 1.24 days and the survival rate was 40%. Conclusions: With the treatment regimen we have formulated, we were able to save 40% of our patients and recommend the use of this regimen by all the intensivists and physicians.
  - 8,899 357
A systemic review on lifestyle interventions to reduce blood pressure
Santosha Vooradi, Uday Venkat Mateti
January-April 2016, 3(1):1-5
Hypertension (HTN) is considered a major predominant disease with different comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Pharmacological methods in addition to nonpharmacological methods play a major role in reducing high blood pressure (BP) that might also offer safe and effective alternatives to drug therapy. Dietary and behavioral techniques are mainly centered so far by the researchers. The purpose of this article is to achieve positive therapeutic outcomes by reviewing evidence-based nonpharmacological treatments and evaluation of patients with HTN. MEDLINE, PUBMED databases were used to review relevant information. HTN with different comorbidities is not only raising the mortality rates but also health-care costs. The monetary burden for nonpharmacological treatment was considered less cost-effective than drug therapy. It is emphasized that providing patient information leaflet with lifestyle modifications can positively influence patients to marque the lifestyle changes.
  - 7,276 1,042