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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-December 2021
Volume 8 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-34

Online since Saturday, May 29, 2021

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Interventional nephrology: A review of literature p. 1
Abdul Rashid Ahangar, Suresh Chandra Tiwari, Sanjeev Gulati
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_19_20  
Interventional nephrology (IN) is one of the prominent nephrology fields that mainly copes with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with renal failure by using special techniques, such as ultrasonography of kidneys, performance of kidney biopsy, insertion of peritoneal dialysis catheters, tunneled dialysis catheters, and maintenance of vascular access for patients receiving hemodialysis. The IN also deals with performing percutaneous endovascular procedures to maintain arteriovenous fistulas or grafts that are functional in patients with renal failure. When performed by a variety of experts, all these procedures resulted in delays in diagnosis and treatment. This led to the formation of a team of nephrologists who started performing these procedures themselves. They opened training centers and provided training to other nephrologists. Excellent results were obtained when these procedures were performed by nephrologists. The IN has ensured to provide renal care with effectiveness, safety, and reduced costs. There is a need to develop awareness among the people, so that these procedures can be performed in an outpatient setting with lower costs. Nephrologists should get adequate training to develop necessary skills to provide standard renal care.
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Effectiveness of altering hypercholesterolaemia without drugs: Evidence of lifestyle modifications: A narrative review p. 6
Lubna A. G. Mahmood, Lorraine Matthews
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_27_20  
Background: Dyslipidemia is a situation of abnormal blood lipids. It is considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Healthy diet is found to be effective in reducing serum cholesterol; thus, using foods that are high in components and that help in reducing cholesterol is recommended. These foods include fruits, green vegetables, avocado, almond, nuts, and fish oil. The aim was to provide an overview of existing research studies and their approaches regarding the effect of dietary and lifestyle modifications in reducing hypercholesterolemia. Materials and Methods: A search of periodical literature by the author involving dietary therapy and soybean was carried out. Items were identified initially through health-oriented indexing services such as Medline, Health STAR, and Cinahl, looking up for articles published in the English language, from 2010 to 2020. Keywords included “Cholesterol,” “Lipid,” “Dyslipidemia,” “Diet,” “and Health.”Results: Those consuming a daily average of 78g of almonds showed a reduction of LDL-cholesterol by 9.4% whereas those consuming 37g/day showed a reduction of LDL-cholesterol by 4.4%, with a significant increase in HDL levels and a decrease in lipoprotein A. It appears that the consumption of soluble fibers can promote a moderate effect in lowering cholesterol in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies have shown that fibers seem to act synergistically at the recommended intake dose of total fiber 25g, including 6g from soluble fibers intake. Conclusion: Dietary modification is found to be a powerful nonpharmacological approach that helps in improving blood lipids. Lipid profiles can be improved indirectly through changing the unhealth, performing physical activity, and reducing body weight.
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Eating and weight disorders: How are they related? A narrative review p. 13
Lubna A G Mahmood, Lorraine Matthews
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_29_20  
Background: Eating disorders are conditions that include abnormal eating behaviors such as excessive or insufficient intake, and which can lead to mental and physical health. Rates of mortality were high among socially isolated individuals as they can be more stressed and depressed. Thus, these disorders must be treated instantly to prevent the deteriorations. In this narrative review, we focus on the association between eating disorders and obesity especially among adolescents. Materials and Methods: A search of periodical literature by the author involving eating disorders and obesity was carried out. Items were identified initially through health-oriented indexing services such as Medline, Health STAR, and Cinahl, looking up for articles published in English language, from 2010 to 2020. Results: Obesity rates were more among adolescents who used to skip their main meals. Whereas, skipping meals were also reported among adolescents who suffered from eating disorders. Both obesity and eating disorders were thought treated by psychological, physical, and dietary approaches. Conclusion: This review is focused on the eating disorders that result in obesity. There is much need for research and development of medications and new innovative treatments to address this growing problem. Research will shed new light on pathways in the brain, which once revealed as related to the abnormal patterns of eating behavior can be modified and changed to successfully help these patients.
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The modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones: What do we really know? A narrative review p. 18
Lubna A G Mahmood, Lorraine Matthews
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_30_20  
Background: Soybean is a species of legume native to Southeast Asia. It is widely grown as it is widely used in producing foods and food additives. The categories of soy protein differ according to their production methods, which ranges from isolated to concentrated and textured soy protein. The direct effect of soy bean on health and its mechanism of work are yet unclear and is still a controversial issue that needs to be investigated. Aim: To provide an overview of existing soybean and health-related research studies and to identify the positive and negative effects if found especially for heart diseases and cancers. Materials and Methods: A search of periodical literature by the author involving dietary therapy and soybean was carried out. Items were identified initially through health-oriented indexing services such as Medline, Health STAR, and Cinahl, looking up for articles published in English language, from 2010 to 2020. Keywords included “Isoflavones,” “soybean,” “cancer,” “Tofu,” and “heart disease.”Results: Researches are still controversial, some studies acknowledged the soybean product’s efficacy in preventing diseases such as heart diseases and cancers, while others found no or negative effects on health. Conclusion: The risk/benefit status of soy products as beneficial supplements continues to be controversial. To conclude, it can be confirmed that 12–25 gm of soy with 75 gm of isoflavones daily (2–4 servings of soy foods per day) can improve the estrogen level along with lipid profile and offer benefits to the cardiovascular system and estrogen deficit symptoms. Most populations should not exceed the recommended amount and the effectiveness of using soybeans should be matched with tolerance and compliance to reach the desirable improvements.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Perceived stress during lockdown due to corona pandemic in Indian urban population: A questionnaire-based study p. 23
Namrata Dagli, Rushabh Dagli
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_1_21  
Aim: The coronavirus pandemic led to lockdown to control the spread of Covid-19. The lockdown caused various lifestyle changes that might have affected mental health. The study aimed to assess the effect of lockdown on stress level of Indian urban population. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based exploratory survey was conducted. A prevalidated Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was used. A total of 120 questionnaires were sent via online social media using snowball sampling technique. PSQ Index scores were calculated for each participant. On the basis of these scores, participants were grouped into three categories: mild, moderate, and severe. The Shapiro–Wilk test was applied to check data for normality. Independent t-test was applied to find the difference of PSQ scores between males and females. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find the difference in PSQ scores between various occupational groups and between various age groups, followed by post hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) test. Results: Completely filled 100 responses were analyzed to form results. About 44% population was found to have moderate stress. Mean PSQ index was 0.35 for sample population with standard deviation of 0.17. Pearson’s correlation between age and PSQ score was –0.452. Values of PSQ scores were higher for female participants, but the difference was not statistically significant. PQS scores were the highest in healthcare workers when compared with other occupations. Results of one-way ANOVA for various age groups were significant (F = 6.73, p = 0.001). Post hoc Tukey’s analysis revealed that only group of senior citizens is significantly different from others. Results of one-way ANOVA for various occupational groups are significant (F = 3.79, p = 0.01), and the result of post hoc Tukey’s HSD test suggests that only group of healthcare workers is significantly different from other groups. Conclusion: Results suggest prevalence of moderate stress level in studied sample population. More stress level was observed in females than males but the difference was not statistically significant. The stress level was higher among healthcare workers when compared with participants with other occupations. Stress was found to be negatively correlated with age of participants. The stress level was lowest in senior citizen participants when compared with other participants.
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Evaluation of antibiotic usage in skin and soft-tissue infections and its antimicrobial susceptibility testing: A hospital-based cross-sectional study p. 27
Mohammed Fareedullah, Zareen Unnisa, Shajiya Khan, Fakeha Fatima, Afifa Khan, Syed Nusrath Farees, Mohammed Khaleel
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_34_20  
Aim: To evaluate the antibiotic usage in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) and to study the sensitivity pattern of identified microorganisms from antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) data. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Inpatient Department of General Surgery at Owaisi Hospital & Research Center, Hyderabad, for 6 months to collect 50 swab samples aseptically from the subjects with diverse SSTIs at the day of admission before the administration of antibiotics, and AST was done using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method based on the guidelines of Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the 50 swab samples, 43 were culture positive and 7 were culture negative, and the highest number of cases was of cellulitis (14.28%). The most commonly isolated pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (30.23%). On the basis of antibiotic sensitivity testing, we found that Ciprofloxacin was the most potent drug, followed by Ceftriaxone and Amikacin, for overall bacterial isolates. In our study, the treatment adhered to IDSA guidelines in 50% of cases and we found that many antibiotics were resistant. In cases of gangrene and abscess, a striking deviation from the guidelines (60% and 77.7%, respectively) was seen. Conclusion: This study guided us toward an appropriate treatment plan for the management of some SSTIs. The disproportionate and tedious use of antibiotics should be abstained as this may drive the evolution of resistant microorganisms that are even more difficult to get rid of.
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Renal cysts: Sonographic evaluation and classification in sudanese adults p. 34

DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.317209  
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