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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-December 2020
Volume 7 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-41

Online since Friday, October 23, 2020

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Caution on the use of rapid antibody testing for 2019 novel coronavirus disease p. 1
Darpan Bhargava
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Almagate: A clinical and biochemical review p. 4
Mahadeo Garale, Kavita Joshi, Vinod K Mishra, Ulhas Ghotkar
Almagate is a crystalline hydrated aluminum-magnesium hydroxycarbonate containing antacid with a unique rigid lattice structure. The observations from preclinical and clinical studies have shown that almagate has a higher acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) with a buffering capacity in pH 3–5 making it effective for longer duration compared to aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and magaldrate. Almagate achieves pH 4 within 2 min as reported by in vitro studies. It was reported to have longer Rossett–Rice time and buffering capacity with bile acid adsorption capacity at pH 3. It also has inhibition activity against pepsin. It does not cause overalkalization and the risk of rebound acidity is low. Almagate was found to have the lowest intrinsic sodium content of 25 ppm compared to aluminum hydroxide (1200 ppm), magnesium hydroxide (1100 ppm), and magaldrate (360 ppm). Unlike aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and magaldrate, almagate maintains capacity to dilute acid even at increasing gastric pH. This review presents the clinical, nonclinical, and biochemical properties of almagate.
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Knowledge and awareness about glaucoma and its determinants: A lesson learned from a community-based survey of a developing nation p. 10
Kailash Chandra Verama, Sourabh Paul, Shyam Mehra, Paresh Prajapati, Tanvir K Sidhu, Varun Malhotra
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma and possible determining factors behind it. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study in a rural community of Punjab province of India, conducted from August 2018 to January 2019. The knowledge about glaucoma was assessed by modified version of Glaucoma Knowledge level Questionnaire, developed by Husder, Department of Public Health, Turkey. Association between variables was assessed by chi-square test, and P value 0.05 or less was considered as statistically significant. Results: Among 1925 participants, only 413 (21.5%) were aware about glaucoma but 375 (90.8%) had poor knowledge about the disease. Higher educational status (P = 0.0001), employed participants (P = 0.0001), presence of eye problem (P = 0.0001), and once a year regular eye checkup (P = 0.001) had significant positive association with the awareness of glaucoma, whereas those with a family history of glaucoma (P = 0.0002) and those who were ever screened for glaucoma (P = 0.0001) had significantly better knowledge about glaucoma. Conclusion: We recommend that Information education & communication activities of National Programme for Control of Blindness and Visual Impairment (NPCBVI) should be strengthened to specifically target rural adult population of India.
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Plasma chlorzoxazone as a probe for cytochrome 2E1 activity among Hausa/Fulani in northwest Nigeria: Determination of acetaminophen metabolic phenotypes p. 18
Muhammad Tukur Umar, Shaibu O Bello, Aminu Chika, Yakubu Abdulmumini
Background: Acetaminophen is the most common drug consumed globally and toxicity of minute percentage translates to millions of people being affected. Even at recommended dose, acetaminophen can cause liver injury due to cytochrome 2E1 gene polymorphism. Interethnic variability in drug response is a well-recognized phenomenon and Hausa/Fulani provides suitable justification as the most populous ethnic group in Nigeria. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine metabolic phenotype among Hausa/Fulani of northwest Nigeria using plasma chlorzoxazone as a probe for cytochrome 2E1. Materials and Methods: This was an exploratory study involving 20 participants of both sexes selected by criterion sampling. A chlorzoxazone tablet was administered after an overnight fast with distilled water. Three hours post-dose, blood sample was collected for the assay of the parent drug and its metabolite 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone in plasma using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Metabolic ratio of chlorzoxazone and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone was determined, probit plot was constructed, trend line added, and resulting polynomial equation was resolved to obtain the anti-mode. Values greater or equal to the anti-mode were considered poor metabolizers, whereas values less than the anti-mode were considered as extensive metabolizers. Statistical Test Used: Frequency histograms and scatter charts using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM* version 25, Armonk, NY, IBM Corp. 2017) were used to analyze the data and results were expressed as proportions with 95% confidence interval. Results: The log metabolic ratio ranged from –0.87 to 2.8 and the value of anti-mode was found to be –1.2. All the participants were found to be in poor metabolizer’s classification. Conclusion: Hausa/Fulani of northwest Nigeria are less susceptible to the toxic effects of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a hepatotoxic metabolite of cytochrome 2E1 metabolism of acetaminophen.
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Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in hemiarthroplasty: An observational study p. 24
Anoop Sivasankara Pillai, Sangeetha Gopinath, Sreelakshmi Pallipurathu Raghunath
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tranexamic acid on postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirement. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty between January 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed using patient case files, discharge database, and blood bank database. The blood transfusion requirement, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, and drain volume were noted. Pearson chi-square test and independent t test were applied to analyze the data. Results: The blood transfusion requirements were significantly lower in those who received tranexamic acid (17.5% vs. 66.67%; P < 0.001). Patients who had received tranexamic acid had significantly less drop in postoperative hemoglobin (0.99 ± 0.32 vs. 2.46 ± 0.52; P < 0.001) and drain volume (102.50 ± 29.62 vs. 274.67 ± 70.01; P < 0.001). Conclusion: In patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty, tranexamic acid reduced the blood loss and the transfusion requirement.
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The thin end of the trend: Nutritional status of women from marginalized communities across four states of India p. 28
Aditi Hegde, Vandana Prasad
Aim: Malnutrition, especially among women, has dire consequences inter-generationally and across the life cycle. Despite many efforts, the burden of malnutrition has persisted in India. The aim was (a) to identify the point prevalence of undernutrition, as well as overweight and obesity, in the described geographic areas, and (b) to compare these findings with national-level data. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in select villages of Darbha (Chhattisgarh), Jhalda (West Bengal), Mohgaon and Samnapur (Madhya Pradesh), and Sonua and Kathikund (Jharkhand) between March 2016 and February 2017. Villages were selected through convenience sampling. The data were collected intra-programmatically by persons trained in health and nutrition using standard weighing scales and stadiometers. The World Health Organization classification of body mass index (BMI) for adults has been adapted for classification purposes. This study used descriptive statistics to analyze the data and used Stata 15.1 for this purpose. Results: Over 12,000 women had their BMI measured, of which 11,319 were valid. Overall, 40.64% of the participants were underweight. Upon categorizing according to severity, 8.27% of all participants were severely thin, whereas the point prevalence of moderate and mild thinness was 10.08% and 22.29%, respectively. Overweight and obese women made up almost 4.1% of the population (3.69% and 0.4%, respectively). These are in stark contrast to the NFHS-4 findings where about 23% of Indian women were underweight, whereas 21% were overweight or obese. Conclusions: Marginalized communities are disproportionately affected by severe undernutrition: the prevalence of severe thinness, a proxy for chronic hunger, is unacceptably high (8.27%) among women from these communities.
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Exploring the collective consciousness fields of Ardha Kumbh Mela 2019 p. 36
BR Divya, Keshavamurthy Murthy
Background: Kumbh mela as a pilgrimage site represents the common collective consciousness engaging their participants with religious and spiritual feelings. People connected with Kumbh mela rituals display different emotions that exerts its influence not only on personal consciousness level but at interpersonal, collective consciousness level linking people to reconnect with others and community. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore and correlate the nature of random event generator (REG) toward the Shahi snan and Aarti durations of Magha Month of Ardha Kumbh Mela 2019 in Prayagraj, Allahabad. Materials and Methods: An observational study conducted at Arail Ghat, Triveni Sangam in Prayagraj from January 15 to March 4, 2019 considering only shahi snan dates. Psyleron REG connected to a laptop was placed in one of the high-tech tents created on the banks of the Sangam river. During the early morning and evening hours on the selected days, the REG was observed for its nonrandom behavior and its deviations. Results: Positive significant deviations (P < 0.05) were observed for all Shahi snan periods of Kumbh: Makara Sankranti (Z = 1.748), Paush Purnima (Z = 1.642), on Mauni Amavasya (Z = 1.68), Basant Panchami (Z = 1.978), Maghi Purnima (Z = –2.149), and Mahashivaratri (Z = 1.697). The shahi snan showed the trend of the collective consciousness fields in the increasing directions of REG except on Maghi Purnima Day. The Aarti of evening hours shows significant negative deviations P < 0.05 in decreasing directions of REG on Mauni Amavasya (Z = –1.762), on Basant Panchami (Z = –2.372). REG trend with P = .07* (Z = –1.429) for Mahashivaratri. No significant deviations were observed for the Aarti time on Makara Sankranti (Z = –0.919), Paush Purnima (Z = –1.175), and for the Maghi Purnima (Z = 0.421). Conclusion: Shahi snan and Aarti time periods of the Ardha Kumbh mela have fostered a profound subjective resonance resulting in significant directional deviations for the REG.
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