|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 17-21
Lifestyle changes during the Covid-19 lockdown among young adults in Kerala in terms of physical activity, sleeping habits, and perceived psychological problems: A cross-sectional study
Sithara Sivaji, Panamoottil G Vijayamohanan, Pallipurath R Sreelakshmi
Department of General Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Uthradom Thirunal Academy of Medical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
|Date of Submission||19-Jan-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||15-Mar-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||26-May-2022|
Dr. Panamoottil G Vijayamohanan
10B, SFS Pattom Square, Pattom, Trivandrum 695004, Kerala
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The aim of this article is to study the lifestyle changes such as physical activity, dietary habits, sleeping patterns, and psychological parameters during the COVID-19 lockdown among young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out by an online web-based survey. The survey was open for 2 weeks and was shared on all social media platforms. It was composed of 20 questions divided into sections, namely, general information and comorbidities, dietary pattern, physical activity, sleeping pattern, and self-reported psychological health. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: Out of the 301 participants, majority were female students who belonged to higher socioeconomic status with a mean age of 23.31 years. Only 100 (33.2%) got involved regularly in any type of exercise during the lockdown period. The participants consumed cereals for a median number of 6 days in a week. One-third of the participants slept for 8–10 h daily during the lockdown period. Psychological issues were reported by 44% (132) of the individuals. Conclusion: Our study showed that only one-third of the participants had the habit of exercising regularly during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Almost half of the participants reported a significant change in their diet. There was an increase in the number of hours of sleep in a day. Psychological health problems in the form of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported by a high proportion of individuals.
Keywords: COVID-19, India, lifestyle, physical activity, psychological, sleeping habits
|How to cite this article:|
Sivaji S, Vijayamohanan PG, Sreelakshmi PR. Lifestyle changes during the Covid-19 lockdown among young adults in Kerala in terms of physical activity, sleeping habits, and perceived psychological problems: A cross-sectional study. J Health Res Rev 2022;9:17-21
|How to cite this URL:|
Sivaji S, Vijayamohanan PG, Sreelakshmi PR. Lifestyle changes during the Covid-19 lockdown among young adults in Kerala in terms of physical activity, sleeping habits, and perceived psychological problems: A cross-sectional study. J Health Res Rev [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jun 7];9:17-21. Available from: https://www.jhrr.org/text.asp?2022/9/1/17/346052
| Introduction|| |
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected many factors in countries all around the world. The pandemic has called upon nations to implement quarantines and lockdowns. This has led to strict decisions to control the spread of the virus, leading to a significant reduction in mobility. Although limitations on free transit and physical distancing are the most effective strategies to reduce COVID-19 infections, this also brings with it considerable change in lifestyle habits of the population. Action plans based on quarantine have created a situation in which people are in the same place for a long period of time. It has promoted sedentary behavior by increasing exposure to screens, added to this are the closing of sport spaces and gyms. One area of great concern is the long-term effects of the pandemic on body weight management due to physical inactivity in adults.
According to the WHO 2020 Guidelines on Physical Activity (PA), all adults are recommended to undergo a 150–300 min moderate-intensity or a 75–150 min vigorous-intensity physical activity workout, or a combination of both per week. Failure to comply with the PA recommendations will lead to several functional and structural disabilities. Restrictions in social mobility have also resulted in change in other parameters such as dietary habits and sleeping patterns. Studies have shown that limitations of mobility have affected food security particularly in vulnerable populations. Confinement to home has also resulted in manifestations of depressive symptoms in populations. Recent research conducted in the UAE reported unfavorable changes such as body weight increase, decreased PA, increased sedentary time, and unhealthy food habits during COVID-19 confinement.
India has been one of the most affected countries in the world during the pandemic. Among the many states in the country, Kerala has been reporting the most number of cases. COVID-19 restrictions were strictly enforced in Kerala than in any other part of the country, and reports from the state available on the lifestyle changes are not that many. The aim is to study the lifestyle changes such as physical activity, dietary habits, sleeping patterns, as well as psychological parameters during the COVID-19 lockdown among young adults of Kerala.
| Materials and Methods|| |
This cross-sectional study was carried out by an online web-based survey after getting the Ethics Committee approval from the Sree Uthradom Thirunal Academy of Medical Sciences located in Vattapara, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The forms were sent to adults between the ages of 18 and 40 years. The forms were kept open for a span of 3 weeks in April 2021 from 3rd to 25th. Information was collected after taking their consent and those who did not consent were excluded from the study.
The questionnaire was shared on social media platforms and was composed of 20 questions divided into 5 sections. Section 1 comprised basic demographic details and self-reported comorbidities. The dietary pattern assessed the number of days of consumption of various food groups during lockdown (cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables, milk and meat products, and bakery items). The pattern of physical activity during lockdown was assessed in comparison to the pattern before lockdown. Hours of sleep was considered to assess the sleeping pattern during lockdown. Psychological health was assessed on the basis of self-reported depression, anxiety, and stress during lockdown.
The type of sampling used was non-random sampling. Participants between the ages of 18 and 40 years were selected for the study. Those who gave their consent were used as inclusion criteria, and those who were not willing to give consent were used as exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was to assess the changes in physical activity, dietary patterns, sleeping patterns, and perceived psychological problems. There were no secondary outcomes.
The collected data were stored in password-protected files and the data were used exclusively for research purposes. The data were entered into Excel sheets and analyzed using SPSS version 16. The quantitative variables were assessed using mean (standard deviation, SD) and median (interquartile range, IQR). The qualitative variables were expressed as proportions.
The study was carried out after getting the approval from the Ethics Committee of the medical university as well as informed consent from the study participants in the form of a question in the web-based survey. The IRB name of the University’s Ethics Committee is Moogambigai Charitable and Educational Trust, with approval number No. 117/Acad/SUTMS/2021. The date of approval was on May 14, 2021.
All the procedures have been performed as per the ethical guidelines laid down by Declaration of Helsinki (2022).
| Results|| |
A total of 301 participants attended the survey and were included in this study between the age groups of 15 and 40 years. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 23.31 years (SD=3.222). Majority of the population was constituted by females (187, 62.1%). Majority of the study population were students (212, 70.4%). Most of them belonged to higher socioeconomic status (242, 80.3%). Four of the study participants reported psychological comorbidities (1.3%).
[Table 1] shows sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants [n = 301]. Out of the 301 participants, only 100 (33.2%) got involved regularly in any type of physical activity or exercise during the lockdown period. Nearly one-third of the study participants (89, 29.6%) reported an increase in their exercising pattern during the lockdown period. Another one-third (116, 38.5%) reported a decrease in their exercising pattern and the rest of the study participants (96, 31.9%) reported that their exercising pattern was the same as that before the lockdown period.
|Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants (n = 301)|
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In terms of their dietary habits during lockdown, the participants of the study consumed cereals for a median number of 6 days of the week (IQR = 3.00–7.00). Processed items were consumed the least for median number of 3 days of the week (IQR=2.00–5.00).
About 48.1% (141) of the study population reported that there was a significant change in their dietary habits during the COVID-19 lockdown period when compared with the time before.
[Table 2] showed median number of days of consumption of various food groups among study participants. Nearly one-third of the study population reported that they slept for 8–10 h daily during the lockdown period (128, 42.5%). However, 46 individuals (15.3%) reported that they had slept for more than 10 h a day.
|Table 2: Median number of days of consumption of various food groups among study participants|
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[Table 3] depicts the duration of hours of sleep by the study population during the lockdown period. About 181 (60.1%) individuals reported that there was an increase in the number of hours they slept during the lockdown period when compared with the pre-lockdown period.
|Table 3: Duration of hours of sleep by the study population during the lockdown period|
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[Table 4] shows the various psychological issues as reported by the study population.
Psychological issues were reported by 44% (132) of the individuals. The rest of the study population did not report any psychological disturbances.
| Discussion|| |
Our study reports the lifestyle habits of young adults of Kerala, India during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This study showed that nearly one-third (29.6%, 89) of the study population reported an increase in physical activity during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Nearly half (48.1%, 141) of the study participants reported a change in their dietary habits. More than half (60.1%, 181) of the study population reported an increase in the number of hours they slept, and 44% (132) of the study participants reported that they had psychological conditions. Only one-third of the participants (33.2%, 100) had the habit of working out regularly during the COVID-19 lockdown period.
More than one-third of the population (38.5%, 116) reported that there was a decrease in physical activity during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This is comparable to a study that was recently conducted in a medical college in Kozhikode, Kerala, where the level of physical inactivity in males and females had increased from 38 (34.5%) and 87 (50.3%) to 55 (50%) and 110 (63.6%), respectively. A study conducted on the impact of the pandemic on health workers showed a decreased physical activity by 84.4% out of 269 individuals. Studies done in other countries that also reported decreased physical activity are listed in references.,,,,
Our study showed that the participants mainly followed a cereal-based diet. The median number of days of consumption of fruits and vegetables was 5 days a week. In a study done by Thulaseedharan et al., it is reported that only 13.9% of the study participants consumed the recommended level of fruits and vegetables. A study by Chopra et al. reported an improvement in the quality of consumption of healthy meals, especially among the younger study population. In a study done by Singh et al., it is reported that there has been an increase in the intake of food during the lockdown period in the urban areas. In another study done by Khan and Bali, it is reported that there has been a decrease in the availability of food in rural areas. In general, food consumption has been high in the urban areas but has been low in the rural areas. The urban–rural difference of consumption of various food groups during the COVID-19 lockdown period is very evident here.
Lockdown gave majority of the study population adequate sleep.
About 57.8% (174) of the study population slept between 8 and 12 h a day and more than half (181, 60.1%) of the participants reported an increase in the number of hours they slept which is comparable to another similar study that took place in north India where the majority of the participants (66.5%, 551) were having good quality of sleep.
Our study reported psychological problems by a high proportion of individuals (44%, 132) mainly in the form of stress, anxiety, and depression. This is comparable to another study that took place in India, which reported the prevalence of psychological conditions in more than two-fifths of their study population during the COVID-19 lockdown period. A similar study took place in the UK, which also reports a negative impact on other lifestyle factors such as physical activity, dietary habits, and sleeping patterns. The effects of the COVID-19 lockdown has been published by other authors as well.
Major limitation was that the data were collected through an online questionnaire based on self-reported morbidities.
| Conclusion|| |
Our study showed that only one-third of the participants had the habit of exercising regularly during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Almost half of the participants reported a significant change in their dietary habits during this period. There was an increase in the number of hours of sleep in a day. Psychological health problems in the form of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported by a high proportion of individuals.
We acknowledge the participants who took part in the study.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
Ethical policy and institutional review board statement
Board name: Moogambigai Charitable and Educational Trust.
Approval number: 117/Acad/SUTMS/2021.
Date of approval: May 14, 2021.
All the procedures have been performed as per the ethical guidelines laid down by Declaration of Helsinki (2022).
Patient declaration of consent
Board name: Moogambigai Charitable.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]