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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 18-23

Plasma chlorzoxazone as a probe for cytochrome 2E1 activity among Hausa/Fulani in northwest Nigeria: Determination of acetaminophen metabolic phenotypes

1 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Muhammad Tukur Umar
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, PMB, Sokoto.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jhrr.JHRR_59_19

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Background: Acetaminophen is the most common drug consumed globally and toxicity of minute percentage translates to millions of people being affected. Even at recommended dose, acetaminophen can cause liver injury due to cytochrome 2E1 gene polymorphism. Interethnic variability in drug response is a well-recognized phenomenon and Hausa/Fulani provides suitable justification as the most populous ethnic group in Nigeria. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine metabolic phenotype among Hausa/Fulani of northwest Nigeria using plasma chlorzoxazone as a probe for cytochrome 2E1. Materials and Methods: This was an exploratory study involving 20 participants of both sexes selected by criterion sampling. A chlorzoxazone tablet was administered after an overnight fast with distilled water. Three hours post-dose, blood sample was collected for the assay of the parent drug and its metabolite 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone in plasma using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Metabolic ratio of chlorzoxazone and 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone was determined, probit plot was constructed, trend line added, and resulting polynomial equation was resolved to obtain the anti-mode. Values greater or equal to the anti-mode were considered poor metabolizers, whereas values less than the anti-mode were considered as extensive metabolizers. Statistical Test Used: Frequency histograms and scatter charts using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM* version 25, Armonk, NY, IBM Corp. 2017) were used to analyze the data and results were expressed as proportions with 95% confidence interval. Results: The log metabolic ratio ranged from –0.87 to 2.8 and the value of anti-mode was found to be –1.2. All the participants were found to be in poor metabolizer’s classification. Conclusion: Hausa/Fulani of northwest Nigeria are less susceptible to the toxic effects of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a hepatotoxic metabolite of cytochrome 2E1 metabolism of acetaminophen.

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