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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| September-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 6, 2017

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The epidemiology of dengue viral infection in developing countries: A systematic review
Monica Singh, Arindam Chakraborty, Sanjay Kumar, Amod Kumar
September-December 2017, 4(3):104-107
Dengue is the fastest growing mosquito-borne viral infection and is prevalent in the tropical regions of the world. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Its impact today is thirty times >50 years ago. Global incidence of dengue has drastically upped in the last few years. According to the World Health Organization, there are about 390 million cases of dengue fever worldwide, and of the total number of cases, 96 million require medical treatment. Worldwide, it has been seen a doubling up of cases on dengue from 2015 to 2016 and it can cause infection in all age groups. As vaccines or antiviral drugs are not available for dengue viruses, the only effective way to prevent dengue is to control the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti and prevent its bite.
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Pattern of metabolic profile of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) subgroup among type two diabetic patients attending tertiary health facility in Northern Nigeria
Salisu Babura Muazu, Innocent Onoja Okpe, Felicia Ehusani Anumah, Adamu Girei Bakari
September-December 2017, 4(3):108-114
Aims: Insulin secretory defect, but not resistance, is the common feature of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADAs), and insulin resistance is considered central in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of the study is to describe the pattern of the clinical and cardiometabolic characteristics of LADA in Northern Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted involving age- and sex-matched 48 LADA patients, 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and 52 normal controls,. The clinical and physical characteristics including weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure measurements were performed. The body mass index (BMI) and waist–hip ratio were also determined. A fasting blood test was taken for glucose, lipids, HbA1c, c-peptide, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) estimation. ELISA method (Kronus kit, USA) was used for GADA estimation, >5.0 units/ml was considered positive while c-peptide value of <1.0 μ/ml is considered low. A clinical criterion for the diagnosis of LADA was used. The Modified International Diabetes Federation-ethnic criteria for classification of MS were used. The SPSS package version 20 was used to analyze the data with P < 0.05 as statistically significant level. Results: The mean ages for LADA and T2DM were 50.1 (11.3) and 51.2 (9.1) years, respectively, and the mean duration of disease was 6.1 (3.7) years in LADA and 7.0 (5.6) years in T2DM patients, P> 0.05. The BMI and WC were 22.1 (5.1) and 80.1 (12.4) cm for LADA and 27.3 (4.9) and 93.2 (10.9) cm for T2DM patients, respectively, P < 0.05. The LADA showed lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TGD), and blood pressure values, while the T2DM group had a better glucose control. The prevalence of MS was 5.7%, 19%, and 68% for the normal, LADA, and T2DM groups, respectively. Conclusions: It was found in this study that LADA subset of diabetes exhibited metabolic features consistent with both defective insulin secretion and insulin resistance. They were found to be lean with low TGD and HDL-C levels.
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Correlation of body mass index and blood pressure of adults of 30–50 years of age in Ghana
Frederick Vuvor
September-December 2017, 4(3):115-121
Aims: There is an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity across the globe. Blood pressure (BP) has been found to increase among populations with high body mass index (BMI). Overweight and high BP both have independent fatal health consequences as they carry serious risk factors for several noncommunicable diseases such as heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes, and even death. It is against this background that this research was carried out to corroborate similar result in Ghana. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of BMI and BP of adults of 30–50 years. Materials and Methods: the WHO STEPwise questionnaires modified to obtain information on demography and lifestyle. Weight and height were measured using seca scale and stadiometer, respectively. BP was also recorded using digital sphygmomanometer. A 24-h recall method was used to assess the dietary intake of participants. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 20.0% and 7.5%, respectively. About 32.5% of the participants (200) were hypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥140 mm Hg). A significant difference existed between high and normal SBP of the participants (P = 0.01). Conclusion: An increase in BMI positively influenced BP among these study adults' population.
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Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of community-acquired pneumonia in children
Maha M. H. K Mansour, Khalid Mohamed Al Hadidi, Manal Shafik Hamed
September-December 2017, 4(3):122-129
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common serious infection in childhood. Bacterial resistance is widespread, with large geographical variations related to behaviors in antibiotics prescription. Identification of etiologic organisms of CAP and their resistance pattern must be done to guide the physicians for proper antimicrobial use. Aim: To identify the causative organisms most frequently isolated from children hospitalized for pneumonia and analyze their susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents most often used in pediatric practice. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-six immunocompetent children hospitalized in Jeddah Clinic Hospital with CAP from January 2010 to September 2011 were enrolled in the study. Their ages ranged between 6 weeks and 15 years. Chest radiograph, complete blood count test (CBC), C-reactive protein, test and sputum culture and sensitivity were done for all patients. Results: One hundred and nine (35.82%) participants were infants <1 year, 43.58% were >1 year ≤5 years, and 20.6% were >5 years. A pathogen was identified in 34.12% of sputum cultures, 56.4% were typical respiratory pathogenic bacteria while 43.56% were normal commensals. Sputum cultures grew Streptococcus pneumonia in 8.77% of respiratory pathogens, coagulase positive Staphylococcus (19.3%), Group B β-hemolytic Streptococcus (8.77%), Escherichia coli (33.3%), Klebsiella spp. (14%), and Pseudomonas (14%). High antimicrobial resistance was recorded for penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cephalexin, and cefuroxime in Gram-positive organisms. Twenty-one percent of E. coli and 50% of Klebsiella spp. were resistant to spectrin. Conclusions: Higher incidence of CAP due to E. coli was recorded. There is increasing antimicrobial resistance to penicillin and second-generation cephalosporin.
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Epidemiology of pediatric asthma in a Nigerian population
Helen Oluwadamilola Akhiwu, Mustafa O Asani, Abdulwahab BR Johnson, Muuta Ibrahim
September-December 2017, 4(3):130-136
Background: Reports have identified a rising prevalence of bronchial asthma, with the highest pediatric burden in the 6–11 years old. Aim: This study aimed at determining the epidemiology of asthma among primary school pupils, aged 6–11 years in Kano metropolis. Settings and Design: This study was prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out among 811 primary school pupils in Kano metropolis from October 2012 to December 2013. Materials and Methods: Information was obtained using pretested questionnaires, and enlisted pupils had their spirometric values recorded. Diagnosis of asthma was based on two or more of the following: recurrent cough, especially nocturnal, recurrent wheeze, recurrent difficulty in breathing with a response to a bronchodilator, and spirometric features of airway obstruction. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 using percentages, mean values, standard deviation, Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and multiple logistic regression. P value was significant at ≤0.05. Results: Asthma prevalence was 12.5%. The disease prevalence was comparable across ethnic groups and socioeconomic classes. Neither weight nor height differed significantly between the asthmatic and nonasthmatic pupils. Family history of asthma and physical stigmata of cutaneous atopy were significantly associated with the disease. Conclusions: The prevalence of bronchial asthma among the pupils studied suggests a current local disease burden that is comparable to those of communities in the industrialized countries. There is a need for improved health education and campaigns about the disease not only for Nigerians but also for other countries with the high prevalence.
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Correlation between hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values in patients with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and nonankylosed patients
Daniel Otasowie Osunde, Benjamin Idemudia Akhiwu, Kevin U Omeje, Olushola I Amole, Akinwale A Efunkoya
September-December 2017, 4(3):137-142
Background: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis causes distortion of the anatomy of the upper airway resulting in some form of airway obstruction. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between TMJ ankylosis and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Settings and Design: This was a prospective comparative study of all consecutive patients with TMJ ankylosis who presented to the Oral and Maxillofacial Unit of the Teaching Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Materials and Methods: Information obtained included age, gender, types of ankylosis, etiology, duration of ankylosis as well as the hemoglobin and hematocrit values which were compared with age- and sex-matched nonankylosed patients. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Twenty patients aged 10–35 years (mean 20.8 ± 5.53) comprising 55.0% males and 45.0% females participated in the study. Bony ankylosis was the most common presentation (75.0%) while trauma (55.0%) was the most common etiologic factor. The mean duration of ankylosis was 9.05 ± 5.43. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 13.49 ± 1.67 and the mean hematocrit was 39.35 ± 5.63. There was a positive correlation between the duration of ankylosis and the hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.471, df = 17, P= 0.042) as well as the hematocrit values (r = 0.457, df = 17, P= 0.049). Both hematological parameters were found to be significantly higher than the values in the nonankylosed patients with a mean difference of 1.57 g/dl (P = 0.001) and 6.28% (P = 0.0001) for hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values, respectively. Conclusion: Patients with TMJ ankylosis have higher values of hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values than the nonankylosed individuals and these findings can be explored for the clinical benefit of patients.
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Healers and healing practices of mental illness in India: The role of proposed eclectic healing model
Ramakrishna Biswal, Chittaranjan Subudhi, Sanjay Kumar Acharya
September-December 2017, 4(3):89-95
Much of the debate on mental illness has centered on cultural difference as a way of dealing with the health-care practices. The varieties of health-care practices induce medical pluralism. In India, this medical pluralism can be observed through the assortments of healers and healing practices. The cultural determinism of any health-care practice comprises traditional or indigenous and modern health-care practices which are embedded in the health culture of country's healing system. This medical pluralism not only provides different forms of healing practices but also addresses different ways of perceiving, explaining, and managing the illness. Nevertheless, consultation with a particular healer is governed by a set of sociocultural beliefs, background of the patients along with the family members which has also been followed through the accessibility and availability of such healers. By exploring the dominance of different types of healers and their healing practices toward mental illness from the preexisting research in India, the present paper tries to show how health-care system in mental illness also represents the kaleidoscope of medical pluralism. Furthermore, the authors have proposed a new model the “eclectic healing model” of mental illness.
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Hypnotherapy in cancer care: Clinical benefits and prospective implications
Vikas Kumar Sharma
September-December 2017, 4(3):96-103
The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of hypnotherapy in cancer patients. Cancer is probably a disease people fear the most. Indeed, the majority of cancer patients experience stress, anxiety, depression, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and pain. Medical treatments of cancer such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are clearly necessary but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on physical and mental health. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnotherapy performed in cancer care, particularly on psychological disturbances, pain, and fatigue. A literature search of relevant literature was performed from February 2016 to October 2016. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDaily databases were searched using search terms for mind–body intervention “hypnotherapy,” “hypnosis,” and “hypnotism” combined with the term “cancer” and terms for symptoms of interest “pain,” “mood disturbances,” “psychological disturbances,” “fatigue,” “anger,” “aggression,” “anxiety,” “tension,” “depression,” “confusion,” “delirium,” “vigour.” English language peer-reviewed articles, randomized trials, and reviews were selected. A first extensive literature review resulted in 98 articles. Finally, 55 research papers were identified for further review and analysis. On the basis of review of previous researches, it can be concluded that hypnotherapy seems to improve the mental health as well as physical health in cancer patients. Moreover, of course, randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology.
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