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   2016| May-August  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 17, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of peak kilovoltage accuracy in ten selected X-ray centers in Lagos metropolis, South-Western Nigeria: A quality control test to determine energy output accuracy of an X-ray generator
Michael Onoriode Akpochafor, Akintayo Daniel Omojola, Kofoworola Oluwatoyin Soyebi, Samuel Olaolu Adeneye, Moses Adebayo Aweda, Helen Bolanle Ajayi
May-August 2016, 3(2):60-65
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184231  
Background: Most X-ray centers recruited for this study admitted that there have been no maintenance checks on the energy output accuracy of their X-ray machines. Most centers complained of recurrent machine breakdown due to poor power supply, while others pointed out that X-ray machine age could be a contributory factor to poor image quality. Aim and Objectives: To determine peak kilovoltage (kVp) accuracy of individual X-ray unit and to compare their values with recommended standards and to further establish if machine age has a significant effect on mean kVp accuracy. Materials and Methods: One dedicated conventional X-ray unit in each of the ten diagnostic centers was used for this study denoted as D 1−D 10 . kVp was measured using a noninvasive Unfors ThinX RAD kVp meter. The kVp accuracy test was carried out by positioning the Unfors ThinX RAD kVp meter at the center of the beam axis of the patient's couch at a focus to image distance of 100 cm. The X-ray machine technical factors were varied by selecting tube potential within the range of 50−120 kVp at a fixed tube current of 20 mA. Data analysis value was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 statistics software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, California, USA). Results: The kVp accuracy test for X-ray units D 1 , D 2 , D 5 , D 6 , D 7 , and D 8 were within an acceptable limit of ±5% at all selected tube potential from 50 to 120 kVp, X-ray units D 2 and D 6 showed accurate compliance at much lower kVp accuracy values. X-ray units D 3 and D 10 were above ±5% accuracy limit at all selected kVp tube potential. No statistically significant differences exist between machine age and mean kVp accuracy (P = 0.770). Conclusion: One-fourth of the total kVp accuracy results were above ±5% limit. Old X-ray machine had higher chances of failed kVp accuracy. Traces of failed test were also noticed in X-ray machines below 5 years.
  4,855 370 1
Assessment of completeness and legibility of prescriptions received at community pharmacies
Easwaran Vigneshwaran, Mantargi Md. Jaffar Sadiq, Vashikeri Prathima
May-August 2016, 3(2):72-76
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184242  
Introduction: A prescription is a written order put into practice by a health-care practitioner such as physician, dentist, hakim, vaidya, veterinarian in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care/treatment for every individual patient. Prescription errors account for elevated number of medication errors that could potentially result in unwanted effects. These are considered as most preventable and on the other hand common cause of iatrogenic injuries and increased health care cost. Thus, it is essential to know the fact on completeness and legibility of prescriptions. Objectives: This study was intended to assess the legibility and completeness of prescriptions which are received at pharmacist attended community pharmacies settings of rural India. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective, cross-sectional research work performed among community pharmacies sited in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Put together, 285 prescriptions were acknowledged during the study episode, from different hospitals and clinics with different specialty physicians. The completeness of prescriptions was analyzed by means of a checklist of vital dimensions in parallel to the World Health Organization guidelines for medication order writing. The legibility was assessed based on the scoring system on quality of prescription. Results: This study results show that all the prescriptions were hand written. The legibility was lacking in almost half of the prescriptions analyzed. We also found that prescriptions are less concentrated on patients' information and medication information than physicians' information. Conclusion: It is necessary to critically address and evaluate the completeness and legibility of the prescriptions in a continuous and frequent manner. Further, this is the time to change it into the computerized electronic prescribing from handwritten prescription to reduce the medication errors.
  2,860 302 -
Effect of yoga therapy on quality of life and depression in premenopausal nursing students with mastalgia: A randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up
Sukanya Raghunath, Nagarathna Raghuram, Sandhya Ravi, Nidhi C Ram, Amritanshu Ram
May-August 2016, 3(2):48-54
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184229  
Introduction: Mastalgia is a common problem and disturbs women's reproductive lives. There is no known organic etiology for mastalgia and also no definitive treatment. Considering the impact of mastalgia on the quality of life (QoL), it appears that mind-body interventions such as yoga would play an important role. Yoga has shown a beneficial effect in reducing pain, anxiety, and depression, thereby improving the QoL. Objective: To compare the benefits of yoga with the physical activity in improving the QoL in nursing students with mastalgia. Materials and Methods: An institutional ethical committee approved this randomized active control trial (RCT) with a follow-up of 6 months on premenopausal women above 18 years with breast pain (pain score >2) of more than 3 months duration. Women already practicing yoga, on hormonal treatment, or diagnosed with malignancy were excluded. Eighty consenting nursing students were randomized into the yoga therapy or control (brisk walk) arm (for 12 weeks). QoL and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires were administered prior to the intervention and 3 months and 6 months after the intervention. Results: RM-ANOVA group effect was significant in BDI, F (1, 67) = 2632.72, P (<0.001) and in overall QoL, F (1, 67) =6881.41, (P < 0.001). Post hoc test (paired sample t-test) showed better improvement in the yoga group (0-3 months, 0-6 months) in both QoL (P < 0.001) (in all the four domains) and depression scores (P < 0.001) compared to the control group. Conclusion: QoL and depression scores improved with yoga in nursing students with mastalgia.
  2,691 302 -
Study of anxiolytic effect of ethanolic extract of drumstick tree leaves on albino mice in a basic neuropharmacology laboratory of a postgraduate teaching institute
Ayon Bhattacharya, Soumya Santra, Soumyadeep Mahapatra, Pratap Kumar Sahu, Divya Agrawal, Sanjay Kumar
May-August 2016, 3(2):41-47
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184228  
Objectives: Anxiety is a serious condition, leading to depression. The statistics of anxiety is alarming and needs an effective, low-cost remedy. Drumstick tree is known as Moringa oleifera belonging to the Moringaceae family. In previous studies, drumstick leaves revealed a storehouse of active ingredients possessing anxiolytic property. In this study, the anxiolytic effect of drumstick leaves was studied using elevated plus maze (EPM) and staircase models at four doses 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized control study. Albino mice were used in this study, a total of 72, divided into six groups, each group consisting of 6 mice. Group I: Control (normal saline orally at 2 ml/kg body weight); Group II: Standard (diazepam 10 mg/kg orally); Group III, IV, V, and VI (ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera [EMO] 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, respectively). EMO leaves were administered at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses orally 1 h before the experiments and their effects observed. Results: In the EPM method, the time spent in open arm and closed arm before and after drug administration was analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test. In the staircase test, the comparison of steps climbed and rears before and after drug administration were done by nonparametric tests, Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney's test. In both models, the extract showed a significant response at 200 and 400 mg/kg. Conclusion: Thus, EMO leaves exhibited anxiolytic activity in both models at higher doses.
  2,632 316 -
Adverse drug reactions among hospitalized patients in Psychiatry Department in a Tertiary Care Hospital
Dhanya Thirookaran Harichandran, Meenakshy Thriprayar Viswanathan, Reneega Gangadhar
May-August 2016, 3(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184243  
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to psychotropic drugs are common. There are very few reports of ADR profile of psychotropic drugs. Pharmacovigilance of psychotropic drugs is essential to improve patient care and create awareness among physicians. Objective: To study the pattern of ADRs among hospitalized patients in the Department of Psychiatry of Tertiary Care Hospital. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital and all the patients who developed ADR to psychotropic drugs formed the study population. Details were documented on an ADR reporting form of Central Drugs Standard Control Organization and Causality assessment was done based on Naranjo algorithm. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results: During the study period, 31 patients developed a total of 53 ADRs. Polypharmacy was seen in 39% of patients who developed ADR. Based on causality assessment in these cases as per Naranjo algorithm, all were judged as probable, except one as possible. The most common ADRs observed were extrapyramidal symptoms. Antipsychotics are the most common group of drugs found responsible for most of the ADRs; olanzapine being the individual drug which caused the maximum number of ADRs. Conclusion: Active surveillance from the part of clinicians and pharmacologists will help build a database for ADRs in Indian setting.
  2,191 300 -
In vitro evaluation of the accuracy of ProPex II, Raypex 6 and iPex II electronic apex locators in primary molar teeth
Levent Demiriz, Mustafa Murat Kocak, Baran Can Saglam, Sibel Kocak
May-August 2016, 3(2):37-40
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184227  
Background: Electronic apex locators (EALs) have become popular to measure the working length in permanent teeth in recent years, and they have helped for estimation of the working length more accurate. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of ProPex II, Raypex 6 and iPex II EALs in primary molar teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifteen mandibular primary second molar teeth with 48 root canals were measured by all EALs. The direct length (DL) of the root canals was measured visually. The differences between DL and electronic working length (EWL) measurements of each device were calculated. Statistically analysis was performed using Student's t-test, and the significance level was at 5%. Results: For the measurements of ProPex II, the reliability of ±0.5 mm was determined in 77% of all root canals. For Raypex 6, the same result (77%) was observed when the accuracy was also accepted as ±0.5 mm. On the other hand, the result was found as 79% in the measurements of iPex II when the same accuracy limit (±0.5 mm) was considered. When the accuracy limit was ±1 mm, the determined values were 96% for ProPex II and Raypex 6 and 94% for iPex II. There was no significant difference between each EAL group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The ProPex II, Raypex 6, and iPex II EALs showed similar results and all tested EALs were able to determine the working length in primary molar teeth accurately.
  2,215 255 -
Predictors of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia of men living in a periurban community in Ghana
Frederick Vuvor, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Kwesi Firibu Saalia, William Bruce Owusu
May-August 2016, 3(2):66-71
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184232  
Aims and Objective: Unhealthy lifestyles influence the incidence of diet-related noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension. This study examined the effects of some lifestyles and their effects on blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol of men. Materials and Methods: The WHO stepwise questionnaires were used to collect data on 207 men aged ≥18 years living in a periurban community in Ghana. Dietary, anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical data were collected. Results and Analyses: About 24.6% of the subjects were overweight with body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 , 26.1% were hypertensive with systolic BP >140 mmHg, 8.7% were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia with total cholesterol >5.18 mmol/L, and 34.8% of the participants had dyslipidemic with blood "low-density lipoprotein" >2.29 mmol/L. Binary logistic regression revealed that tobacco smokers and overweight men were about 4 times (odds ratio [OR]: 3.68, P < 0.01) and more than twice (OR: 2.46, P < 0.01) likely to suffer from hypertension, respectively. Men with fat intake ≥60% of nutrient adequacy ratio were about 3 times more likely to suffer from hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.72, P < 0.05). Tobacco users and overweight men were both about 3 times (OR: 2.65, P = 0.02) more likely to be dyslipidemic. Conclusion: These results suggest that tobacco use, overweight, and high intake of dietary fat were associated with high risk of cardiovascular events among men in the study group.
  1,756 191 1
Management of fractures of thoracolumbar spine with pedicle screw fixation
Himanshu Rohela, TM Ravinath, J Vasudeva, Tanmay Mallick
May-August 2016, 3(2):55-59
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184230  
Objective: The spinal traumas are common and leading problem in orthopedic practice. In this study, we stabilize the cases of the unstable thoracolumbar spine injuries with decompression and pedicular screw instrumentation . Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken in the Department of Orthopedics in CG and Bapuji Hospitals attached to JJM Medical College, Davangere. Twenty adult patients with acute thoracolumbar injuries who gave the consent for surgery admitted during the study period were included as study sample. Patient selection was according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and was surgically treated with pedicle screw and rod system (ZETA). Results: The standard deviation of the study group was 11.5 with mean age being 41 years. The most common vertebrae involved in this series were between T11 and L2 to the extent up to 50%. The average regional angle during preoperative stage was 16.50 ΁ 5.020 and 4.450 ΁ 4.150 during 1-year postoperative period. The mean difference of vertebral height between pre- and 12 th post-operative week was 8.8 mm, pre- and 24 th post-operative week was 7.95 and pre- and 1-year post-operative period was 7.95. Among all the subjects, 20% resumed the previous level of work or equal level of the physically challenging job. While 35% with little modification resumed the previous level of heavy work after 1 year of follow-up. After same period about 45% of subjects did not entertain any pain, whereas 30% felt occasionally, for which no medication was required. Conclusion: Findings of this study show that pedicle screw-rod instrumentation is an excellent implant system used in treatment of vertebral fractures. There is a very high statistical significant restoration of vertebral body height, mean regional angle and mean anterior wedge angle with this procedure in thoracolumbar fractures. Neurological recovery was seen significantly when all cases with neurological deficits were clubbed together.
  1,768 156 -