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REVIEW ARTICLES
The metabolic processes of folic acid and Vitamin B12 deficiency
Lubna Mahmood
January-April 2014, 1(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.143318  
Vitamins are the organic compounds required by the human body and are considered as vital nutrients needed in specific amounts. They cannot be synthesized in a sufficient amount by the human body; so, they must be obtained from the diet. Thirteen different types of vitamins are known that are classified by their biological and chemical activity. Each one of them has a specific role in our body. Folic acid has a vital role in cell growth and development through many reactions and processes that occur in the body, e.g. histidine cycle, serine and glycine cycle, methionine cycle, thymidylate cycle, and purine cycle. When the body becomes deficient in folic acid, all cycles that are mentioned above will become ineffective and lead to many problems, in addition to other problems such as megaloblastic anemia, cancer, and neural tube defects. Vitamin B12 has a vital role in cell growth and development through many reactions and processes that occur in the body. When the level becomes elevated or lower than the normal, the whole process will collapse because each process is linked to another. Deficiencies can be treated by increasing their consumption in diet or by supplement intake.
  71,147 4,167 8
Split brain syndrome: One brain but two conscious minds?
Divya Agrawal, Biswa Bhusan Mohanty, Sanjay Kumar, Prafulla Kumar Chinara
May-August 2014, 1(2):27-33
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.150793  
The corpus callosum is the largest bundle of commissural fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. The human brain actually functions as two individual brains capable of highly organized mental functions. The dominant hemisphere deals with speech, written language, mathematics, and grammar, whereas the non-dominant hemisphere deals with music, pictorial representation, spatial and temporal synthesis. When this connection is divided surgically, the patient shows what are known as disconnection syndromes which can be classified as acute and chronic. Based on the review of literature, we have tried to deal with the symptom complex of patients who have undergone commissurotomy as treatment for multifocal epilepsy. A selective literature search using the internet and e-library facilities was performed on the topic. The work of great neuropsychologists like Roger Sperry and M. S. Gazzaniga was studied and the differences in functions of the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres were compared. Based on this literature search, it was found that the corpus callosum helps in interhemispheric transfer of information and it is the co-ordination between the two hemispheres which allows us to perform activities smoothly and perfectly. If this connection is severed, actions performed by one hand cannot be understood by another. It was seen that speech, calculation, reasoning, personality, and intelligence are almost completely preserved after commissurotomy. However, cognitive impairment, abstract reasoning, short-term memory, and attention deficits have been reported. All the studies carried out in this field have suggested that the separation of the hemispheres creates two different spheres of consciousness within a single cranium. By using the split brain model, it can be concluded that a normal person's mind is the result of interaction between two separate states of consciousness.
  12,467 751 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of length of stay and average cost of treatment in Medicine Intensive Care Unit at tertiary care center
Aditi Agrawal, Mahendra Bhauraoji Gandhe, Swapnali Gandhe, Nikhil Agrawal
January-April 2017, 4(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.199329  
Introduction: In this era, health-care facilities have improved greatly which has increased the life expectancy of humanity, but all these costs and so the role of economic evaluations of health-care interventions has become increasingly important especially in developing countries like India. Objective: To estimate the expenses of a patient in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), disease wise expenditure and area of expenses (therapeutic and diagnostic). Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in tertiary care hospital of private setup in Mumbai region. The inclusion criterion was admitted patients in medicine ICU (MICU) on the basis of the clinical presentation during January 2014–February 2014 (2 months). The cost of treatment included the bed charges in the hospital ICU, diagnostic cost (routine and special investigations), therapeutic cost, cost of oxygen, monitor, nebulization, ventilator, cost of drugs, and other consumables were assessed. Results: Totally fifty patients were admitted in above period to MICU. The average stay of a patient in MICU amounts to 4 days (approximated for 4.01) with the least being 1 day for unstable angina and maximum 11 days for congestive cardiac failure. Conclusion: The major shares of expenses in treatment in MICU were on medicines, and this can be reduced using generic drugs.
  6,938 400 -
Immediate effect of listening to Indian raga on attention and concentration in healthy college students: A comparative study
Karuna Nagarajan, Thaiyar M Srinivasan, Nagendra Hongasandra Ramarao
September-December 2015, 2(3):103-107
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.168367  
Background: Many studies with western music have shown enhancement in the cognitive performance task. The factors influencing the performance are a selection of dependent measures, choice of the piece of music, presentation order of the conditions. Research has shown that the specific choice of musical composition may help in the improvement of the particular cognitive task. Objectives: We chose to study the impact of Indian Raga on a memory task. Methods: In twenty-six volunteers both male and female (group average age ± S.D., 18.84±3.53 years) the immediate effect of two musical conditions and No music condition was studied on memory. All participants were assessed before and after (i) Indian Raga Bhupali(R) for 10 minutes on day one; (ii) an equal duration of Pop music (P); and (iii) an equal duration of Silence or no music (S) on next two different days respectively. A Section of the Wechsler memory scale (WMS) was used to assess; (i) attention and concentration (digit span forward and backward) before and immediately after the intervention. Results: There was a significant improvement in digit forward (P<0.05, increase of 3.17%) and backward span score after (p<0.05, an increase of 5.26%) immediately after the exposure to Indian Raga Bhupali. Conclusions: The combination of notes in Indian Raga Bhupali is said to instill Shringara rasa or the aesthetic mood of Love. The improvement is significant compared to the Pop music that is much preferred by the college students and Silence or No music conditions. It was concluded that Memory scores improved immediately after listening to Indian Raga Bhupali.
  6,317 360 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Defluoridation techniques: Which one to choose
Navin Anand Ingle, Harsh Vardhan Dubey, Navpreet Kaur, Isha Sharma
January-April 2014, 1(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.143315  
Water is one of the most important elements for all forms of life and is indispensable to the maintenance of life on the earth. Safe drinking water is the important need for every human being. Water may be contaminated by natural sources or by industrial effluents. One such contaminant is fluoride. The problem of excess fluoride in ground water was detected in many states of India. Till 1999, 17 states have been identified with the problem of excess fluoride in ground water sources. Several materials like aluminium salts, calcined alumina, magnesia, lime, activated carbon sulphonated carbonaceous materials, and ion exchange resins have been screened for their utility in defluoridation of water. On the basis of results and extensive investigations, different researchers had developed a simple and economical domestic defluoridation processes. This article attempts to critical review of the past work on defluoridation studies by using conventional and unconventional materials, and to compile the various pros and cons of these defluoridation methods including Nalgonda, Activated Alumina, bone char, fly ash, brick, and reverse osmosis.
  5,193 639 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Magnification in dental practice: How useful is it?
Savita Abdulpur Mallikarjun, Pheiroijam Romibala Devi, Archana R Naik, Superna Tiwari
May-August 2015, 2(2):39-44
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.160903  
Microsurgery, this terminology itself is self-explanatory, where a surgical procedure is performed making use of the magnification obtained by an operating microscope. The instruments like a microscope which provides the magnification is made use of, in the fields of medicine since decades. Now the use of such magnification systems is a very popular practice in dentistry as well. Before adopting visual magnification systems such as microscopes and successfully applying it in the dental procedures, it is mandatory to understand the principles and the physics of such instruments. Microsurgery in dentistry has more advantages in terms of efficiency, improved ergonomics, minimally invasiveness and less fatigue. This review paper, highlights about the various magnification systems, its principles and the application of microsurgery in various fields of dentistry.
  4,878 728 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of anemia and effectiveness of iron supplementation in anemic adolescent school girls at Amravati City (Maharashtra)
Ajay Keshavrao Jawarkar, Pushpa O Lokare, Anuradha Kizhatil, Jyoti A Jawarkar
January-April 2015, 2(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.158122  
Introduction: In India, the prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls is estimated at 56%. The underlying sociodemographic factors and menstrual practices need to be studied in adolescent girls and a way to reduce the anemia not only by supplementation of iron and folic acid tablets and deworming but ensuring its regular consumption. Hence, the present study was undertaken to know the effectiveness of deworming and iron and folic acid supplementation in reducing the prevalence and severity of anemia in adolescent school girls. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls in urban area and effectiveness of iron supplementation in them. Materials and Methods: The present interventional study was conducted at Sharada Kanya Vidyalaya, in Amravati city. Total 350 adolescent girls were selected by random sampling from August 2013 to November 2013. All the girls were given a single dose anthelminthic and the girls who were anemic were given iron and folic acid tablets for daily consumption. The hemoglobin was again assessed after three months. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test of significance and standard error of difference between two means using SPSS version 16 software. Results: The overall prevalence of anemia in adolescent girls was found to be 55%. Mean and standard deviation of Hb% in adolescent girls significantly increased from 10.57 (±1.09) before to 11.78 (±0.99) after intervention. Conclusion: The contributing factors of anemia found in the present study were low socioeconomic status, onset of menarche, small family size, and vegetarian diet.
  4,462 626 2
Is job anxiety and perceived stress modifiable in Indian IT professionals? An experimental study using yoga-based intervention
Pammi Sesha Srinivas, Sony Kumari, Katte Bharathiramnachar Akhilesh, Hongsandra Ramarao Nagendra
September-December 2015, 2(3):81-85
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.168370  
Background: Indian information technology (IT) professionals are continuously subjected to project assignment changes as well as uncertainties in existing project continuations as cancelling of projects is not uncommon. There are periods in the work life of an Indian IT professional when he/she has to cope with no project situation, before being assigned to another project. IT professionals also need to continuously upgrade their IT-relevant skills in order to deliver projects to customers with less capital. All this adds up to job anxiety and perceived stress among IT professionals. With prolonged states of job anxiety and perceived stress, these professionals may become victims of diseases driven by anxiety and stress. There is a popular perception that Yoga, an Indian ancient science, can give control over modifications of mind and hence can help reduce anxiety and stress. Objective: To study the effect of cyclic meditation ( a yoga based practice) on job Anxiety and perceived stress of Indian IT Professionals. Materials and Methods: A control study was carried out on 96 Indian age ranged from 24 to 50 IT Professionals working in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Pre-post design was chosen and questionnaire method of collecting data was adopted. Results: The results indicates that after a period of 8 week intervention, there is a reduction of 19.51% in job anxiety and a reduction of 34.77% in perceived stress among Indian IT Professionals. Conclusion: This study indicates that Yoga based practices help to greatly reduce Job Anxiety and Perceived stress among Indian IT professionals. This study also highlights the need to explore the role of Yoga based practices on Indian IT professionals work life in greater detail.
  2,146 2,710 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
The metabolic syndrome: Time for addressal
Amita Suneja Dang, Ritu Deswal
September-December 2014, 1(3):59-65
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.153879  
The metabolic syndrome (Met S) is an escalating clinical and public-health challenge worldwide with increasing prevalence figures ranging from 10% to as high as 84%. Urbanization, calorie dense diet, sedentary life habits and increasing obesity are significantly associated with its increased prevalence. It is defined by a constellation of an interconnected physiological, clinical, metabolic and biochemical factors that directly increase the risk of diseases like cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), stoke, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. The knowledge about Met S and its consequences in society is in infancy stage. Existing criteria's for defining it are ambiguous and rationale for thresholds are ill defined. This makes Met S difficult to understand, diagnose and conclude. Therefore, current national and worldwide epidemiology of Met S also remains controversial. The proliferation of various definitions demands a single unifying definition. It is important to identify and evaluate the population with Met S as early interventions can simply avoid the complications associated. Increasing the awareness of Met S itself may account for huge decline as early interventions help to abort the associated complications. Simple lifestyle changes and routine health checkups can help keep metabolic syndrome at bay. The prevalence of Met S is high as well as unrecognized among the general population. If the situation persists Met S may prove a massive killer in the years to come. This calls for prompt and incessant updating of medical community as well as public sector.
  2,573 2,158 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and HIV co-infection among asymptomatic pregnant women in Zaria, northern Nigeria
Solomon Avidime, Hajaratu U Sulayman, Adebiyi G Adesiyun
May-August 2014, 1(2):49-53
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.150802  
Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most common curable, sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Serious adverse reproductive health outcomes including pregnancy complications, pelvic inflammatory disease, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition have been linked to T. vaginalis infection. Objective: To determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in asymptomatic pregnant women and their HIV status in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional descriptive study conducted using a proforma to obtain demographic and reproductive health information from consenting pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. Vaginal swab and blood samples were taken and analyzed for T. vaginalis and HIV, respectively. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) V17, with the level of significance set at 5% . Results: The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 19.2%. There was an inverse relationship between the level of education and acquisition of T. vaginalis infection in pregnancy; women having no formal education had a higher prevalence of the T. vaginalis infection (7.5%) as against those who had tertiary education (1.7%). The 26-30 years age group had the highest prevalence of both HIV infection (5.0%) and T. vaginalis infection (5.8%), strongly suggesting the possibility of co-infection between the two agents. There was a statistically significant association between T. vaginalis infection and HIV infection with a P value of 0.0003. The relative risk (RR) of acquiring HIV in the presence of T. vaginalis infection was 4 (RR: 4.193; Confidence Interval: 1.756-10.01). Conclusion: Improvement of the socioeconomic status and education of women, especially sexual health; will reduce the prevalence of T. vaginalis and HIV co-infection.
  4,483 206 -
Clinicopathological evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding
Mitali Mahapatra, Pratima Mishra
May-August 2015, 2(2):45-49
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.160904  
Introduction: Historically our culture has traditionally viewed even the normal menustral cycle as an aberration, ostracizing the reproductive aged women. Aristotle quoted Hippocrates writings by describing the process of heavy uterine bleeding as "In quantity, bleeding in excessive, saith Hippocrates, when they flow about eighteenth ounces". Aims and Objective: To study the various aetiopathological factors responsible for AUB in women ages 20-55 years, and to correlate the clinical presentation with ultrasonography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and histopathological finding. Sample: In this study, 140 cases of 15-55 years of age group were randomly selected after the exclusion criteria who were willing to get admitted as well as prepared for follow-up. Inclusion Criteria: The cases of abnormal uterine bleeding, attending the gynecology OPD with complaints of menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhoea, and polymenorrhagia in the age group 20-55 years, were selected. Exclusion Criteria: Pregnant patients and patients below 20 years and above 55 years are excluded from the study. Conclusion: It is seen that incidence of AUB is more common in 5 th decade of life and in multiparous women. Menorrhagia is the most common bleeding pattern followed by metrorrhagia. Histopathological examination of the endometrium revealed that whatever may be the pathology, proliferative endometrium is the most common pattern.
  3,856 611 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Healers and healing practices of mental illness in India: The role of proposed eclectic healing model
Ramakrishna Biswal, Chittaranjan Subudhi, Sanjay Kumar Acharya
September-December 2017, 4(3):89-95
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_64_17  
Much of the debate on mental illness has centered on cultural difference as a way of dealing with the health-care practices. The varieties of health-care practices induce medical pluralism. In India, this medical pluralism can be observed through the assortments of healers and healing practices. The cultural determinism of any health-care practice comprises traditional or indigenous and modern health-care practices which are embedded in the health culture of country's healing system. This medical pluralism not only provides different forms of healing practices but also addresses different ways of perceiving, explaining, and managing the illness. Nevertheless, consultation with a particular healer is governed by a set of sociocultural beliefs, background of the patients along with the family members which has also been followed through the accessibility and availability of such healers. By exploring the dominance of different types of healers and their healing practices toward mental illness from the preexisting research in India, the present paper tries to show how health-care system in mental illness also represents the kaleidoscope of medical pluralism. Furthermore, the authors have proposed a new model the “eclectic healing model” of mental illness.
  3,340 575 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Study of anti-inflammatory effect of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica) on infected albino rats
Manas Ranjan Naik, Ayon Bhattacharya, Rasmirekha Behera, Divya Agrawal, Suhasini Dehury, Sanjay Kumar
September-December 2014, 1(3):66-69
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.153880  
Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory effect of neem seed oil (NSO) on albino rats using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. Materials and Methods: The study sample was divided into six groups with each group consisting of six rats as follows: Group I: Control (distilled water 0.5 ml/rat); Group II: Standard (aspirin 200 mg/kg body weight orally); Groups III, IV, V, and VI (NSO 0.25 ml, 0.5 ml, 1 ml, and 2 ml/kg body weight, respectively, i.p.). The inflammation induced in the form of hind paw edema was produced by injection of 0.1 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan in normal saline below the plantar aponeurosis of right hind paw of rats; the left hind paw served as control. The volume of edema was measured by water displacement method in microburette. Volumes of both the hind paws were measured before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h of carrageenan injection. Results: NSO in the dose of 0.25 ml/kg body weight did not show any significant anti-inflammatory activity. NSO showed increased inhibition of paw edema with the progressive increase in dose from 0.25 ml to 2 ml/kg body weight. At the dose of 2 ml/kg body weight, NSO showed maximum (53.14%) inhibition of edema at 4 th hour of carrageenan injection. Aspirin in the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight showed maximum inhibition of hind paw edema. Conclusion: The present study concludes that NSO exhibits significant anti-inflammatory action.
  3,100 787 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
A systemic review on lifestyle interventions to reduce blood pressure
Santosha Vooradi, Uday Venkat Mateti
January-April 2016, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.173558  
Hypertension (HTN) is considered a major predominant disease with different comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Pharmacological methods in addition to nonpharmacological methods play a major role in reducing high blood pressure (BP) that might also offer safe and effective alternatives to drug therapy. Dietary and behavioral techniques are mainly centered so far by the researchers. The purpose of this article is to achieve positive therapeutic outcomes by reviewing evidence-based nonpharmacological treatments and evaluation of patients with HTN. MEDLINE, PUBMED databases were used to review relevant information. HTN with different comorbidities is not only raising the mortality rates but also health-care costs. The monetary burden for nonpharmacological treatment was considered less cost-effective than drug therapy. It is emphasized that providing patient information leaflet with lifestyle modifications can positively influence patients to marque the lifestyle changes.
  2,975 722 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Clinical laboratory tests: Right choice of the test for the benefit of the patient
Sultan Omer Sheriff, Dhastagir Sultan Sheriff
January-April 2014, 1(1):10-14
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.143319  
Clinical laboratory tests form one of the major components of evidence-based medicine. Results obtained for the cases referred carry variations due to biological parameters including the effect of age, pre-analytical errors, analytical errors, as well as interpretation of the results obtained. In the present study, some of these concerns have been addressed with a view to prepare the physician to understand, interpret, as well as choose the required tests for a specific case in question.
  3,154 314 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Oral health status of cement factory workers, Sirohi, Rajasthan, India
Akanksha Sharma, Susan Thomas, Rushabh J Dagli, Jitender Solanki, Geetika Arora, Amarpreet Singh
January-April 2014, 1(1):15-19
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.143320  
Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the oral health status of cement factory workers. Materials and Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out at Sirohi, Rajasthan. A total of 90 study subjects were included. They were all males who were in the age group of 20-58 years and are permanent employees of the cement factory. For recording the oral hygiene status and dental caries status, The Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (Greene and Vermillion, 1964) and The DMFT Index (Henry T. Klein, Carrole E. Palmer, Knutson J. W., 1938) are used, respectively. Wasting diseases were also recorded. Chi-square was used to find association of dental caries, oral hygiene status, oral lesions and wasting diseases with age, education, brushing habit, frequency of brushing and tobacco use. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Tooth wear was seen among 50% of the study subjects. Forty percent of the subjects had adverse habit. Significant association of wasting diseases was found with age (P = 0.004), education (P = 0.022) and adverse habit (P = 0.014). Adverse habit was also significantly associated with oral lesions (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Most of the factory workers had dental caries and poor oral hygiene. Fifty percent had tooth wear. So, there is a need of oral health education and motivation for these workers along with oral health care facilities in the premises.
  2,825 434 -
Correlation of body mass index and blood pressure of adults of 30–50 years of age in Ghana
Frederick Vuvor
September-December 2017, 4(3):115-121
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_93_16  
Aims: There is an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity across the globe. Blood pressure (BP) has been found to increase among populations with high body mass index (BMI). Overweight and high BP both have independent fatal health consequences as they carry serious risk factors for several noncommunicable diseases such as heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes, and even death. It is against this background that this research was carried out to corroborate similar result in Ghana. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of BMI and BP of adults of 30–50 years. Materials and Methods: the WHO STEPwise questionnaires modified to obtain information on demography and lifestyle. Weight and height were measured using seca scale and stadiometer, respectively. BP was also recorded using digital sphygmomanometer. A 24-h recall method was used to assess the dietary intake of participants. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 20.0% and 7.5%, respectively. About 32.5% of the participants (200) were hypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥140 mm Hg). A significant difference existed between high and normal SBP of the participants (P = 0.01). Conclusion: An increase in BMI positively influenced BP among these study adults' population.
  2,946 313 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Hypnotherapy in cancer care: Clinical benefits and prospective implications
Vikas Kumar Sharma
September-December 2017, 4(3):96-103
DOI:10.4103/jhrr.jhrr_45_17  
The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of hypnotherapy in cancer patients. Cancer is probably a disease people fear the most. Indeed, the majority of cancer patients experience stress, anxiety, depression, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and pain. Medical treatments of cancer such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are clearly necessary but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on physical and mental health. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnotherapy performed in cancer care, particularly on psychological disturbances, pain, and fatigue. A literature search of relevant literature was performed from February 2016 to October 2016. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDaily databases were searched using search terms for mind–body intervention “hypnotherapy,” “hypnosis,” and “hypnotism” combined with the term “cancer” and terms for symptoms of interest “pain,” “mood disturbances,” “psychological disturbances,” “fatigue,” “anger,” “aggression,” “anxiety,” “tension,” “depression,” “confusion,” “delirium,” “vigour.” English language peer-reviewed articles, randomized trials, and reviews were selected. A first extensive literature review resulted in 98 articles. Finally, 55 research papers were identified for further review and analysis. On the basis of review of previous researches, it can be concluded that hypnotherapy seems to improve the mental health as well as physical health in cancer patients. Moreover, of course, randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology.
  2,930 263 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Measuring severity of acne vulgaris and impairment in quality of life of its patients and aiming for their concomitant reduction facilitates comprehensive management
Yugal Kishor Sharma, Aayush Gupta
Sep-Dec 2016, 3(3):81-85
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.193186  
Some of the adolescent patients of chronic acne, some women aged 25–40 years, and particularly, patients with psychiatric diseases (primary or secondary to acne) have disproportionately severe acne and its attendant psychosocial distress. Although no consensual clinical gold standard regarding the severity of acne exists despite abundance of scales developed over six decades, global acne grading system is used most commonly. The “subjective” psychosocial consequences of acne can be better evaluated by self-assessed health-related quality of life (QoL) tools than the traditional clinical assessment by the physician. The correct interpretation of these tools such as health status surveys (generic and specific) and preference-based measures, requires adherence to the rules regarding reliability, validity, sensitivity, and complete transcultural adaptation. The Cardiff Acne Disability Index is the most commonly employed specific health state survey for acne. Comprehensive therapy addressing the severity of acne as well as the resultant impaired QoL concomitantly can, fortunately, mitigate negative mental symptoms; this mitigation may even be proportional to the clinical remission. In addition, the routinely integrated practice of these twin measures may also speed up patient encounters by inculcating perspicacity in the treating physician.
  1,404 1,703 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of peak kilovoltage accuracy in ten selected X-ray centers in Lagos metropolis, South-Western Nigeria: A quality control test to determine energy output accuracy of an X-ray generator
Michael Onoriode Akpochafor, Akintayo Daniel Omojola, Kofoworola Oluwatoyin Soyebi, Samuel Olaolu Adeneye, Moses Adebayo Aweda, Helen Bolanle Ajayi
May-August 2016, 3(2):60-65
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.184231  
Background: Most X-ray centers recruited for this study admitted that there have been no maintenance checks on the energy output accuracy of their X-ray machines. Most centers complained of recurrent machine breakdown due to poor power supply, while others pointed out that X-ray machine age could be a contributory factor to poor image quality. Aim and Objectives: To determine peak kilovoltage (kVp) accuracy of individual X-ray unit and to compare their values with recommended standards and to further establish if machine age has a significant effect on mean kVp accuracy. Materials and Methods: One dedicated conventional X-ray unit in each of the ten diagnostic centers was used for this study denoted as D 1−D 10 . kVp was measured using a noninvasive Unfors ThinX RAD kVp meter. The kVp accuracy test was carried out by positioning the Unfors ThinX RAD kVp meter at the center of the beam axis of the patient's couch at a focus to image distance of 100 cm. The X-ray machine technical factors were varied by selecting tube potential within the range of 50−120 kVp at a fixed tube current of 20 mA. Data analysis value was done using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 statistics software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, California, USA). Results: The kVp accuracy test for X-ray units D 1 , D 2 , D 5 , D 6 , D 7 , and D 8 were within an acceptable limit of ±5% at all selected tube potential from 50 to 120 kVp, X-ray units D 2 and D 6 showed accurate compliance at much lower kVp accuracy values. X-ray units D 3 and D 10 were above ±5% accuracy limit at all selected kVp tube potential. No statistically significant differences exist between machine age and mean kVp accuracy (P = 0.770). Conclusion: One-fourth of the total kVp accuracy results were above ±5% limit. Old X-ray machine had higher chances of failed kVp accuracy. Traces of failed test were also noticed in X-ray machines below 5 years.
  2,675 260 -
Level of understanding about diabetes mellitus among health seekers for diabetic related eye care
Padma B Prabhu, V Aiswarya, NF Beena, Anju Prabha, N Faseena, Kuzupally Vallon Raju
May-August 2015, 2(2):54-60
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.160910  
Purpose: Awareness of varied aspects of diabetes mellitus (DM) is essential for the prevention, management and control of the disease. Aim: The aim was to assess the level of understanding of DM among patients and their bystanders attending the ophthalmology out-patient department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Kerala. Design: Cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: The cases were selected by convenient sampling. The questionnaire covered demographic characteristics, general knowledge on DM, its causes, management, and prevention. Results: The study included 40 cases of DM and 50 bystanders. The median age was 49.78 years (range: 19-78). About 32% of the bystanders were diabetic. 29 subjects led a sedentary life. More than one family member was affected among 52.22%. Despite general awareness, only 38.70% knew about the hidden complications of the disease. The source of information was the treating physician in 47.11%. Knowledge about visible complications was better. Awareness about management options and preventive strategies was poor. Duration of the disease, family history and being an accompanying person had correlation with the awareness among the group. Conclusion: The majority of patients and bystanders had poor knowledge on the related health aspects of DM.
  2,567 290 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Smoking and chronic pain
Joel D' Silva, Sumana Devadiga, Prasanna Kumar Dengody, Mahabaleshwar Chalathadka, Mimansa Bhoj, Vaibhav Jain
May-August 2014, 1(2):34-39
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.150794  
Smoking has become a trend among individuals nowadays and, thus a major health problem. Since a long time, smoking has been associated with problems like vascular stenosis, lung cancer, heart attack, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Experiments have shown that nicotine released by cigarette smoking has analgesic property. However, along with this, studies have also shown it to be a factor that causes musculoskeletal problems. Therefore, it becomes a matter of scientific concern. This review article will discuss about how smoking induces both acute and chronic pain. Also, it will enlighten us about the pharmacology and pathophysiology behind smoking-induced pain. Quitting smoking reverses or prevents most of its harmful effects. Therefore, smoking cessation plays an important role. We will also discuss about the various steps taken to help smokers quit the habit.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prescribing pattern of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia in a teaching hospital of Southeast Asia
Sanjay Kumar, Divya Agrawal, Soumya Santra, Suhasini Dehury, Priti Das, Trupti Rekha Swain
September-December 2015, 2(3):86-89
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.168371  
Objective: To study and describe the antibiotic prescribing habits of physicians for 117 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Materials and Methods: A medicine consultant or a pulmonologist supervised and treated 45 (38%) patients. Out of 45 patients, 7 (16%) were given macrolide, 12 (26%) received beta-lactam antibiotics, 14 (31%) were given a combination of beta-lactam and macrolide, and 12 (26%) were given a combination of more than one antibiotics. Seventy-two (62%) patients were seen by other specialists, of whom 5 (6%) were given macrolide, 35 (48%) were given beta-lactam, 4 (6%) were administered a combination of beta-lactam and macrolide, 2 (3%) received quinolones, and 26 (36%) patients received various combinations. In 47 out of 117 patients, therapy was modified, which included 12 patients who underwent step-down switch. The duration of hospitalization was 26 days for those patients whose therapy was modified. Patients who underwent step-down switch had a hospital stay of 7 days, whereas those who did not have any modification in the treatment stayed for 10 days in the hospital. Results: Beta-lactam antibiotic was more commonly used, at least 3.8 times more than a macrolide. Other combinations of antibiotics were given in 28%, 68%, and 44% of patients treated by a medicine specialist, pulmonologist, and other specialties, respectively. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that in spite of the advances of knowledge in the management of CAP, there exists variability in the prescribing habits of the attending physician.
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Study on default and its factors associated among Tuberculosis patients treated under DOTS in Mayurbhanj District, Odisha
Sudipta Basa, Srinivas Venkatesh
January-April 2015, 2(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.158125  
Background: Defaulting from tuberculosis (TB) treatment has been one of the major obstacles to treatment management and an important challenge for TB control. Understanding of various factors accounting for treatment default could help to achieve better compliance from patients. Thus the aim of the study is to estimate number of defaulters out of total TB patients registered under DOTS from January to June 2005 and to study the reasons for default in Mayurbhanj district, Orissa. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing 41 defaulters using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire to elicit reasons for default. Data was analyzed using Epi-info-(3.5.1), to find statistical significance among the variables. Results: Of the total 41 defaulters among 550 patients registered, only 31 could be interviewed, 10 were untraceable at the address provided. Default rate in our study was 7.5%. Majority of patients (73%) had defaulted during intensive phase of the treatment. A higher default rate associated with age group of 40-60 years, males and employed groups. The main reasons for default was due to drug toxicity (42%), feeling better so discontinued (35.5%), alcoholism (19.4%), migration (6.45%), wrong ideas (6.45%), DOTS provider absent (3.2%), DOTS provider rudeness (3.2%), and other reasons (9.7%), which includes family problems, timing inconvenient, and carelessness. Risk factors significantly associated were male, age, alcoholism, and distance of more than 5 km from treatment center. Conclusions: The majority of patients have defaulted in intensive phase of treatment. All efforts should be made to retrieve these patients and return them to treatment to achieve the expected goal of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP).
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Oral health awareness among the final year undergraduate nursing students in Khammam district, Telangana
Navya Muttineni, Sheetal Chowdary Bolla, Shaik Naheeda, Riyaz Basha Shaik, Satish Simha Reddy, Naga Sribala Gantha
September-December 2014, 1(3):70-73
DOI:10.4103/2394-2010.153891  
Background: Nursing is an important paramedical course and is considered as an essential supplementary branch of medicine. Nurses play an essential role in the society to improve public awareness about general and oral health. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the oral health awareness of all the final year undergraduate nursing students of Khammam district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in all the nursing colleges of Khammam district. A total of 147 students were included in the study and they were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 26 questions which were evaluated under four categories. Data analysis was done to find the statistical significance among the variables. Results: 89.8% of the students knew how many teeth we have in our oral cavity. Many of them were not aware of proper brushing method. Regarding oral health, they had adequate knowledge on identification of disease and its relation to general health, and the effect of diet on oral health, but around 81% were confused with the identification of tooth decay. Around 51% of them were not sure about the number of visits a person should make to a dentist. Conclusion: Nursing students have adequate knowledge on basic oral structure and identifying oral diseases, but they are little confused with the method of brushing, number of visits a person should make to a dentist, and specialties in dentistry. Many have shown interest toward camps and clinical postings to improve their knowledge and serve the public.
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