Metabolic syndrome and its associated factors among apparently “healthy” adults residing in rural settlements in Dutse, Northwestern Nigeria: A community-based study
Salisu B Muazu1, Rifkatu Mshelia2, Hauwa Bako3, Mohammad B Ahmad4, Tasiu Mohammed5, Innocent O Okpe5, Adamu G Bakari5
1 Department of Medicine, Rasheed Shekoni Specialist Hospital, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
3 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
4 Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
5 Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Dr. Salisu B Muazu
Consultant Physician and Endocrinologist Department of Medicine, Rasheed Shekoni Specialist, Dutse Jigawa State and Visiting Lecturer, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of the most dangerous risk factors for heart attack, is associated with unhealthy lifestyle practices brought about by modernization of societies, and is thought to be uncommon in developing nations, especially in rural setting, hence we intend to document its prevalence and associated factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study involved 362 apparently healthy consenting adults, aged 18–72 years (males, 197 and females, 165) who met the inclusion criteria. Structured questionnaire was used to generate data and physicals were carried out, including anthropometry using the World Health Organization Stepwise protocol. Fasting blood sample was taken for determination of serum lipid profiles and glucose. International Diabetes Federation ethnic-specific criteria for the diagnosis of MS were used. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 23) software was used for the analysis with P < 0.05. Results: The mean age was 30.2 (9.4) years. A prevalence of MS was found to be 8.8%. Female/male ratio was 15.1%:3.6%, P = 0.003, 40–49 years age group (37.5%) was the most common age group, and 19.8% of all subjects were overweight. The most common recurring components in the diagnosis of MS were reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (87.5%), raised fasting blood glucose (56.3%), and high systolic blood pressure (46.9%). Regression analysis revealed that being diabetic/hypertensive, family history of hypertension/diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol, and increasing age were found to be associated with MS. Conclusion: The prevalence of MS in this community was 8.8%, more common in females and 40–49 years age group, and was largely determined by the contribution of low levels of HDL-C but not hypertriglyceridemia. Independent predictors of MS were found to be family history of hypertension, raised total cholesterol, and increasing age.